Lightning protection systems considering national standards four systems should be established in a result of being intergrated with each other. As Yılkomer, we have done some researches and a result of these researches we have revealed that by a lot of engineers and technicans, lightning protection system was perceived as external lightning ( faraday cage , capture end, tension wire , lightning rod) applications . Between a structure that we needed to be included in lightning protection systems, external lightning applications is one of only four feet of this integration. Indeed, how a table could not stand on one leg and it collapse, also our structure against the effects of lightning discharge will be damaged when exposed to lightning strikes. Lightning protection systems should be created as a result of the integration of the four systems.
Lightning protection of buildings is great importance in terms of life and property safety
These are a good grounding systems, a potential spouse system which was configured correctly, selected according to the type of building construction will take place outside our external lightning system and gradually built the interior lightning ( sudden surge protector) system. These systems, must be on that structure when we evaluating them on standarts and technical aspects. İf we do not set up internal lightning system in a structure, by setting up external lightning system all our energy and data lines, eelctronic devices will be at risk. On the other hand, if there is not grounding system in the structure we can not integrate internal lightning system into the structure. Also equipotention missing facility can suffer from external lightning system coupling effect. This integration stage can be further improved.
In summary, if you want to protect the structure from lightning, it must be external lightning systems for reducing the risk of fire in buildings and protect living, internal lightning systems is to protect electronic devices. İn this article we will try to give information about internal lightning systems.
During the lightning discharge is a current flows between 2.000 and 200.000 amperes. These values are energy transmission lines, communication lines, security systems, etc located in an area up to aproximately 2 km away , leads to the direct lightning discharge with a voltage or magnetic fields on facilities. İf this voltages are above limit strength of installation or device, may occure insulation deterioation, burns and explosions.
The current passing through a conductor creates a magnetic field and the current is interrupted magnetic field suddenly decreases. Stored energy on the conductors by way of the induced are distributed the voltage into the system. Such voltages is an extremely common.
In a structure to be occured the sudden surge lightning effect, that structure is no need to have external lightning system. Lightning discharges after reaching the ground in the form of circles spread in an area of 2km long are moving the point where resistance is low. For this reasın ı have stated above even if, there is no external lightning system, we have to use internal lightning system in our buildings.
Nowadays, most social activity of human life industry, trade and services, health strongly depends on the electrical and electronic devices and systems work correctly. The most common reason deterioration of these systems ,hindering the transmission of data and damage of this equipment caused by sudden overvoltages. Many compainies can see UPS’s an uninterruptible power suply as sudden overvoltage protection system. But if the UPS placed to organize the change occuring in the circuit does not contain any overcome voltage protection. Most of the devices are said has contained just a little low pass filter. This filter provides only protection against radio frequency, but not provide protection against large amplitude sudden overvoltages. İn addition, in our board insurance and relays has not functions in lightning characteristic impact. Because they are long-term impact integrated systems.The lightning discharge it has a very short-term impact characteristic also damp down late on soil. Therefore, it is neeed internal lightning systems.
In low voltage systems the overvoltage arresters connected between phase with – soil and neutral – soil, in case of coming blows passing through transmission puts out overvoltages. So, taking on overvoltages exposed to our system, prevent damage to the system. It is envisaged DIN-IEC norms gradual protection. Each stage reducing by one rate impact tenssion ,eventually rendering it harmless to the system. B-class is protection for lightning blows from the outside, C-class is protection against sudden overvoltages in the system and class D is used to protect sensitive protection. Cllass B : class B or type 1 , cllass C: cllas 2 or type 2 and D class arresters can be reffered as cllas 3 or type 3.
The first point of entry into the building energy class B usually the main board our products, in the building’s energy distributed in the sub-panel C-class products and server,in front of the camera, external lines, data, computer equipment and other electronic devices must be placed class D products in order to protect them. If there is a structure that will allow external lightning protection system against direct lightning discharge is seen as a Class B product must be used in the main panel. Assuming that came our system of external lightning strikes a lightning 200 kilo amperes, the 100 kilo amperes of it will wither on the ground and the other remaining 100 kilo amperes portion will entrance to our building. In B-class products is created a protection for 50 kilo amperes per phase in order to prevent the impact of these kilo amperes on the devices. With B-class products and the main point of the pulse current is limited in the extend of 4.5kV – 2.5 kV – 1.5 kV, and leads to prevent the damage to our system. This protection is made in the main board level. In the secondary panel is distributed within the building’s energy is projected C-class protection.In a stucture which is used external lightning, using C class productss without using B class products, the system will be damaged. C-class products in systems composed sudden surge of per phase prevent damage to devices on line 40 kA up to the surge voltage of 2.3 kV, 1.5 kV, which limits the range of 1 kV. Generally, it is the level of protection that is made in secondary panels. In order to implementation of C class protective system, there must be at least 5 m must be a distance between B class the protector. However, the B + C-class products produced with the newly developed technology eliminates this problem.
D class is developed in accordance with the protection of various protective devices. Because the fact that it is a direct for equipment protection, is it considered as sensitive protection. Panel and socket types are available. There are many options depending on the area of use. However, using D class products without using B and C class products are not functioning. To illustrate, the socket protection is considered as the last link and they are not functioning. There is also specially designed to protect the modules belonging to the communication system and the transmitting station receiver. In particular, these products provides the protection against sudden voltage and current shock to the antenna input. Wireless communication systems and CB radios has a fairly wide range of applications areas. Computers, data processing systems, video systems or for applications where the transmission of signals via coaxial cable,class D connector adapter modules are used to prevent damage to the device from the tension impact which will come from signal lines.
In summary, to be protected from lightning,also the switching elements which leads to sudden voltage pulse, harmonics, and the effects of voltage fluctuation,internal lightning (preventive sudden surge parafudr) is needed to use. Prevent damage to sensitive devices with our advancing technology, avoid the loss of critical data, we need to set these systems to our buildings and our facilities in order to prevent the damages to the billion dollar facilities. Getting the assistance for choosing products from the dominant firm as expert engineers and from technical firms about it is very important. Let’s not forget to prevent a small effect such as the sudden surge pulse leading to the major damages.